Revealed at Mecca, [7 verses]

Al-Fātiĥah, “The Opening” or Fatifatul-Kitab, “The

Opening of the Scripture” or Ummu’l-Qur’ân, “The Essence

of the Qur’ân,” as it is variously named, has been called the

Lord’s Prayer of the Muslims. It is an essential part of all

Muslim prayer, public and private, and no solemn contract

or transaction is complete unless it is recited. The date of

revelation is uncertain, but the fact that it has always, from

the very earliest times, formed a part of Muslim prayer, there

being no record or remembrance of its introduction, or of

public prayer without it, makes it clear that it was revealed

before the fourth year of the Prophet’s Mission (the tenth

year before the Hijrah); because we know for certain that by

that time regular congregational prayers were offered by the

little group of Muslims in Mecca. In that year, as the result of

insult and attack [1] by the idolaters, the Prophet arranged for

the services, which had till then been held out of doors, to

take place in a private house.

This sûrah is also often called Saba’an min al-Mathani, “Seven

of the Oft-repeated” (“verses” being understood), [Sûrah, 15:

87], words which are taken as referring to this sûrah.[2]

[1] Ibn Hishîm, Shah (Cairo ed.), Part I, p. 88.

[2] See Nöldeke, Gescliclte Acs Qorans, Zweite Auflage, bearbeitet von

Fr. Schwally, Part I, pp. no seq.

TRANSLATOR NOTE: I have retained the word Allah throughout,

because there is no corresponding word in English. The word Allah

(the stress is on the last syllable) has neither feminine nor plural,

and has never been applied to anything other than the unimaginable

Supreme Being. I use the word “God” only where the corresponding

word ilah is found in the Arabic. The words in brackets are interpolated

to explain the meaning.




1. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

2. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds,

3. The Beneficent, the Merciful.

4. Sovereign of the Day of Recompense,

5. You [alone] we worship; You [alone] we ask for help.

6. Guide us to the straight path,

7. The path of those whom You have bestowed favour; not

[the path] of those who earn Your anger nor of those

who are astray.





Revealed at Al-Madînah, [286 verses]

Al-Baqarah (The Cow) is so named from the story of the

yellow heifer (vv. 67-71). As is the case with many other sûrahs,

the title is taken from some word or incident which surprised

the listeners. All suggestions to the contrary notwithstanding,

it seems probable that the whole of this sûrah was revealed

during the first four years after the Hijrah, and that by far the

greater portion of it was revealed in the first eighteen months

of the Prophet’s reign at Al-Madînah that is to say, before the

battle of Badr. [1]

The Jewish tribes, once paramount in Yathrib had, not very

long before the coming of Al-Islâm, been reduced by the pagan

Arab tribes of Aus and Khazraj, each Jewish tribe becoming an

adherent of one or the other. But they had preserved a sort

of intellectual ascendancy owing to their possession of the

Scripture and their fame for occult science, the pagan Arabs

consulting their rabbis on occasions and paying heed to what

they said. Before the coming of Al-Islâm, [2] these Jewish rabbis

had often told their neighbours that a Prophet was about to

come, and had often threatened them that, when he came,

they (the Jews) would destroy the pagan Arabs as the tribes of

A’âd and Thamûd had been destroyed of old. [3] So plainly did

they describe the coming prophet that pilgrims from Yathrib

recognised the Prophet, when he addressed them in Mecca,

as the same whom the Jewish scholars had described to them.

[1] Th. Nöldeke, Gesclicfoe des Qorslns, Zweite Auflage, bearbeitet von Fr.

Schwally, Part I, pp. 173 seq.

[2] Al-Islâm means “The Surrender” i.e. man’s surrender to God’s will

and purpose.

[3] Ibn Hishâm (Cairo ed.), Part I, pp. 180 seq.



But the Jewish idea of a Prophet was one who would give

them dominion, not one who would make them brethren

of every pagan Arab who chose to accept Al-Islâm. When

they found that they could not make use of the newcomer,

they opposed him and tried to bewilder him with questions

from their theology, speaking to him as men who possessed

superior wisdom; failing to perceive that, from a Prophet’s

standpoint, theology is childish nonsense, the very opposite

of religion, and its enemy; religion, for the Prophet, being not

a matter of conjecture and speech, but of fact and conduct.

Ibn Ishâq[1] states definitely– that vv. 1-141 were revealed

concerning these Jewish rabbis and such of the new converts

to Al-Islâm as were half-hearted and inclined to them. There

follows the order to change the Qiblah (the place toward which

the Muslims turn their face in prayer) from Jerusalem to the

Ka’bah at Mecca, which was built by Abraham, the choice of

Jerusalem having led to a misunderstanding on the part of

the Jews that the Prophet was groping his way toward their

religion and stood in need of their guidance and instruction.

All through the sûrah runs the note of warning, which

sounds indeed throughout the whole Qur’ân, that it is not

the mere profession of a creed, but righteous conduct, which

is true religion. There is the repeated announcement that

the religion of Abraham, to which Judaism and Christianity

(which springs from Judaism) trace their origin, is the only

true religion, and that that religion consists in the surrender

of man’s will and purpose to the Will and Purpose of the

Lord of Creation as manifested in His creation and revealed

by way of guidance through successive Prophets. Of sincerity

in that religion the one test is conduct, and the standard of

that religion is for all alike.

[1] Apud Ibn Hishâm, Sîrah (Cairo ed.), pp. 189 seq.




At the time when this sûrah was revealed at Al-Madînah,

the Prophet’s own tribe, the pagan Qureysh at Mecca, were

preparing to attack the Muslims in their place of refuge.

Cruel persecution was the lot of Muslims who had stayed

in Meccan territory or who journeyed thither, and Muslims

were being prevented from performing the pilgrimage. The

possible necessity of fighting had been foreseen in the terms

of the oath, taken at Al-’Aqabah by the Muslims of Yathrib

before the Flight, to defend the Prophet as they would their

own wives and children, and the first commandment to fight

was revealed to the Prophet before his flight from Mecca;

but there was no actual fighting by the Muslims until the

battle of Badr.

Many of them were reluctant, having before been subject

to a rule of strict non-violence. It was with difficulty that they

could accept the idea of fighting even in self-defence, as can

be seen from several verses in this sûrah; which contains also

rules for fasting and the pilgrimage, bequests, almsgiving,

divorce and contracts, and verses which discountenance usury,

strong drink and gambling. It concludes with a statement of

the universal character of Al-Islâm, the religion of Allah’s

sovereignty, and a prayer for the forgiveness of shortcomings.

This sûrah might be described as the Qur’ân in little. It contains

mention of all the essential points of the Revelation, which are

elaborated elsewhere. This accounts for the precedence given to

it in the arrangement of the Book.

The period of revelation is the years 1 and 2 A.H. for the

most part, certain verses of legislation being considered as

of later date.



In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

1. Alif. Lâm. Mîm. [1]

2. This is the Book whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to

those who fear Allah.

3. Who believe in the unseen, and establish prayer, and spend

of that We have provided for them;

4. And who believe in that which is revealed to you [Muhammad]

and that which was revealed before you, and are certain of

the Hereafter.

5. Those are upon [true] guidance from their Lord. And those

who are the successful.

6. Verily, those who disbelieve, whether you warn them or you

warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not.

7. Allah has sealed their hearts and their hearing and on their

eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great doom.

8. And of mankind, there are some [hypocrites] who say: We

believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not.

9. They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and

they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not.

10. In their hearts is a disease, and Allah has increased their

disease. A painful doom is theirs because they used to lie.

11. And when it is said to them: Make not mischief in the

earth, they say: We are but reformers.

12. Are not they indeed the corrupters? But they perceive not.

[1] Three letters of the Arabic alphabet. Many Sûrahs begin thus with

letters of the alphabet. Opinions differ as to their significance, the

prevalent view being that they indicate some mystic words. Some

have opined that they are merely the initials of the scribe. They are

always included in the text and recited as part of it.




13. And when it is said to them: Believe as the people[1] have

believed, they say: Shall we believe as the foolish have

believed? Are not they indeed the foolish? But they know


14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: We

believe; but when they go apart to their devils they declare:

Lo! we are with you; verily we were only mockers.

15. Allah [Himself] does mock them, and prolongs them to

wander blindly on in their contumacy.

16. These are they who have purchased error at the price of

guidance, so their commerce has not prospered, neither

were they guided.

17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled fire,

and when it shed its light around him Allah took away

their light and left them in darkness, where they cannot


18. Deaf, dumb and blind; and they return not.

19. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness,

thunder and the flash of lightning. They thrust their

fingers in their ears by reason of the thunder-claps, for

fear of death, Allah encompasses the disbelievers [in His

guidance, His Omniscience and His Omnipotence].

20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight. As often

as it flashes forth for them they walk therein, and when

it darkens against them they stand still. If Allah willed,

He could destroy their hearing and their sight lo! Allah is

Able to do all things.

[1] i.e. the people of Al-Madînah, most of whom were Muslims, w. 8 to

19 refer to the “Hypocrites,” or lukewarm Muslims of Al-Madînah,

whose leader was Abdullah ibn Ubeyy. They pretended that their aim

was to make peace between the Muslims and the Jewish rabbis, but

they only embittered the controversy.



21. O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who has created you and

those before you, so that you may become righteous.

22. Who has made the earth a resting-place for you, and the

sky a canopy; and causes water to pour down from the

sky, thereby producing fruits as provision for you. And do

not set up rivals to Allah when you know [better].

23. And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have

sent down upon Our slave[1] [Muhammad], then produce

a sûrah or the like thereof, and call your witnesses other

than Allah if you are truthful.

24. And if you do it not - and you can never do it - then guard

yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers,

whose fuel is of men and stones.

25. And give glad tidings [O Muhammad] to those who believe

and do good deeds; that theirs are Gardens underneath

which rivers flow; as often as they are provided with

a provision of the fruit thereof, they say: This is what

was given us previously;[2] and it is given to them in

resemblance. There for them are pure companions; and

they will abide therein forever.

26. Lo! Allah disdains not to coin the similitude even of

a mosquito or what is smaller than it. And those who

believe know that it is the truth from their Lord; but

those who disbelieve say: What does Allah want [to

teach] by such a similitude? He misleads many thereby,

and He guides many thereby; and He misleads thereby

only miscreants;

[1] To be the slave of Allah is the proudest boast of the Muslim,

bondage to Allah liberating from all other servitudes. In the Qur’an

mankind are often called God’s slaves or bondmen, a stronger and

more just expression than the word “servants” generally substituted

in translations.

[2] The joys of Paradise will recall, in a rapturous degree, the joys the

righteous tasted in their life on earth.




27. Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying

it, and sever that which Allah ordered to be joined, and

[who] make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are

the losers.

28. How disbelieve you in Allah when you were dead and He

gave life to you! Then he will give you death, then life

again, and then to Him you will return.

29. He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then He

turned to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens.

And He is Knower of all things.

30. And when your Lord said to the angels: Lo! I am about

to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Will You place

therein one who causes corruption therein and will shed

blood, while we, we celebrate Your praise and sanctify

You? He said: Surely I know that which you know not.

31. And He taught Adam the names,[1] all of them, then

showed them to the angels, saying: Inform me of the

names of these, if you are truthful.

32. They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that

which You have taught us. Lo! You, only You, are the

Knower, the Wise.

33. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when

he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not

tell you that I know the unseen of the heavens and the

earth? And I know that which you disclose and which you


34. And when We said to the angels: Prostrate yourselves

before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblîs He demurred

through pride, and so became a disbeliever.

35. And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in

[1] Some, especially Sûfîs, hold “the names” to be the attributes of Allah;

others, the names of animals and plants.



the Paradise, and you[1] eat [of the fruits] in abundance

thereof where you will; but come not near this tree lest

you become wrong-doers.

36. But Satan caused them to deflect therefrom [the Paradise]

and expelled them from the [happy] state in which they

were; and We said: Fall down,[2] one of you a foe to the

other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and

provision for a time.

37. Then Adam received from his Lord words [of revelation],

and He accepted his repentance. Lo! He is the Accepting

of repentance the Merciful.

38. We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there

comes to you from Me a guidance; and whoso follows

My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither

shall they grieve.

39. But they who disbelieve, and deny Our Signs, such are the

owners of the Fire. They will abide therein eternally.

40. O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith

I favoured you, and fulfil your [part of the] covenant, I

shall fulfil My [part of the] covenant and fear Me.

41. And believe in what I have sent down, confirming that

which you possess already [of the Scripture], and be not

first to disbelieve therein, and do not exchange My verses

for a trifling price, and fear [only] Me.

42. Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly

conceal the truth.

43. Establish prayer, pay the poor-due,[3] and bow your heads

with those who bow [in worship].

[1] Here the command is in the dual, as addressed to Adam and his wife.

[2] Here the command is in the plural, as addressed to Adam’s race.

[3] Az-Zakâh a tax at a fixed rate in proportion to the worth of

property, collected from the well-to-do and distributed among the

poor Muslims.




44. Enjoin you righteousness upon people while you

yourselves forget [to practise it]? And while you recite the

Scripture! Have you then no sense?

45. Seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is hard save

for the humbly submissive [to Allah],

46. Those who are certain that they will meet their Lord, and

that to Him they are returning.

47. O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I

favoured you and how I preferred you to [all] the worlds.

48. And fear a Day when no soul will in nothing avail

another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will

compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.

49. And [remember] when We delivered you from Pharaoh’s

folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful doom,

slaying your sons and sparing your women: That was a

tremendous trial from your Lord.

50. And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and rescued

you, and drowned the folk of Pharaoh in your sight.

51. And when We did appoint for Moses forty nights [of

solitude], and then you took [for worship] the calf after

him and were wrong-doers.

52. Then, even after that, We pardoned you in order that you

might give thanks.

53. And when We gave to Moses the Scripture and the

Criterion [of right and wrong], that you might be guided.

54. And when Moses said to his people: O my people! You

have wronged yourselves by your taking of the calf [for

worship] so turn in repentance to your Creator, and kill

[the guilty] yourselves. That will be best for you with your

Creator and then He accepted your repentance. Lo! He is

the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.



55. And when you said: O Moses! We will not believe in you

till we see Allah plainly; and even while you were looking

on the thunderbolt took you.

56. Then We revived you after your death, that you might give


57. And We caused the white cloud to overshadow you and

sent down on you the manna and the quails, [saying]: Eat

of the good things wherewith We have provided you–

They wronged Us not, but they did wrong themselves.

58. And when We said: Go into this township [Jerusalem]

and eat of that which is therein wherever you will in [ease

and] abundance, and enter the gate in prostration [bowing

humbly] and say: “Repentance.”[1] We will forgive you

your sins and increase [reward] for the right-doers.

59. But those who did wrong changed the word which had

been told them for another saying, and We sent down

upon the wrong-doers a punishment from heaven for

their wrong-doing.

60. And when Moses asked for water for his people, We

said: Smite with your staff the rock. And there gushed

out therefrom twelve springs [so that] each tribe knew

their drinking-place. Eat and drink of that which Allah

has provided, and do not act corruptly, making mischief

in the earth.

61. And when you said: O Moses! We are weary of one kind

of food; so call upon your Lord for us that He brings forth

for us of that which the earth grows – of its herbs and

its cucumbers and its corn and its lentils and its onions.

He said: Would you exchange that which is better for

that which is lower? Go down to settled town, thus you

[1] According to a tradition of the Prophet, Hittatun is a word implying

submission to Allah and repentance. The wrong-doers changed it for

a word of rebellion i.e. they were disobedient.




shall get that which you demand. And humiliation and

poverty were stamped upon them and they were visited

with wrath from Allah. That was because they disbelieved

in Allah’s signs and killed the prophets wrongfully. That

was for their disobedience and transgression.

62. Lo! those who believe [in that which is revealed to you,

Muhammad], and those who are Jews, and Christians, and

Sabaeans whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and

does righteousness surely their reward is with their Lord, and

there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.

63. And [remember, O children of Israel] when We made a

covenant with you and caused the Mount to tower above

you, [saying]: Hold fast that which We have given you, and

remember that which is therein, that you may become


64. Then, even after that, you turned away, and if it had not

been for the grace of Allah and His mercy you had been

among the losers.

65. And you know of those of you who transgressed concerning

the Sabbath, how We said to them: Be you apes, despised

and hated!

66. And We made it an example to their own and to succeeding

generations, and an admonition for those who fear Allah.

67. And when Moses said to his people: Lo! Allah commands

you that you sacrifice a cow, they said: Do you take us

in ridicule? He answered: Allah forbids that I should be

among the ignorant!

68. They said: Pray for us to your Lord that He makes clear

to us what [cow] she is. [Moses] answered: Lo! He says,

Verily she is a cow neither with calf nor immature; [she

is] between the two conditions; so do that which you are




69. They said: Pray for us to your Lord that He makes clear to

us of what colour she is. [Moses] answered: Lo! He says:

Verily she is a yellow cow. Bright is her colour, gladdening


70. They said: Pray for us to your Lord that He makes clear to

us what [cow] she is. Lo! cows are much alike to us; and

Lo! if Allah wills, we will be guided.

71. [Moses] answered: Lo! He says: Verily she is a cow unyoked;

she ploughs not the soil nor waters the tilth; whole and

without mark. They said: Now you brought the truth. So

they sacrificed her, though almost they did not.

72. And [remember] when you killed a man and disagreed

concerning it and Allah brought forth that which you

were hiding.

73. And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah

brings the dead to life and shows you His signs so that

you may understand.

74. Then, even after that, your hearts were hardened and

became as rocks, or worse than rocks, for hardness. For

indeed there are rocks from out which rivers gush, and

indeed there are rocks which split asunder so that water

flows from them. And indeed there are rocks which fall

down for the fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what

you do.

75. Have you any hope that they will believe in your religion

when a party of them used to listen to the Word of

Allah, then used to change it, after they had understood

it knowingly?

76. And when they [Jews] meet those who believe, they say:

We believe. But when they go apart one with another they

say: Do you talk to them of that which Allah has revealed

to you that they may contend with you before your Lord

concerning it? Have you then no sense?




77. Are they [Jews] then unaware that Allah knows that which

they keep hidden and that which they proclaim?

78. And among them are unlettered ones who know the

Scripture not except in wishful thinking. They but guess.

79. Therefore woe be to those who write the Scripture with

their hands and then say, “This is from Allah,” that they

may purchase a small gain therewith. Woe to them for

that their hands have written, and woe to them for that

they earn thereby.

80. And they say: The fire [of punishment] will not touch us

save for a certain number of days. Say: Have you taken

a covenant with Allah – truly Allah will not break His

covenant or tell you concerning Allah that which you

know not?

81. Nay, but whoever has done evil and his sin surrounds

him; such are rightful owners of the Fire; they will abide

therein eternally.

82. And those who believe and do good deeds: such are

rightful owners of the Garden. They will abide therein


83. And [remember] when We made a covenant with the

Children of Israel, [saying]: Worship none save Allah

[only], and be good to parents and to kindred and to

orphans and the needy, and speak kindly to mankind; and

establish prayer and pay the poor-due. Then, after that,

you turned away, save a few of you, being averse.

84. And when We made with you a covenant [saying]: Shed

not the blood of your people nor turn [a party of] your

people out of your dwellings. Then you ratified [Our

covenant] while you were witnessing [thereto].[1]

[1] v. 83 is generally taken as referring to the Biblical covenant and v. 84

as, referring to the solemn treaty which the Jews of Al-Madînah made

with the Prophet in the year 1 A.H.



85. Yet you it is who kill one another and drive out a party of

your people from their homes, supporting one another

against them by sin and transgression,[1] and if they came

to you as captives you would ransom them, whereas their

expulsion was itself unlawful for you. Believe you in part

of the Scripture and disbelieve you in part thereof? And

what is the reward of those who do so save ignominy in

the life of the world, and on the Day of Resurrection they

will be consigned to the most grievous doom. For Allah is

not unaware of what you do.

86. Such are those who buy the life of the world at the price

of the Hereafter: Their punishment will not be lightened,

neither will they have support.

87. And verily We gave to Moses the Book and We caused a

train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave to

Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs [of Allah’s sovereignty],

and We supported him with the pure Spirit[2] is it ever so,

that, when there comes to you a messenger [from Allah]

with that which you yourselves desire not, you grow

arrogant, and some you disbelieve and some you kill?

88. And they say: Our hearts are hardened. Nay, but Allah has

cursed them for their unbelief. Little is that which they


89. And when there comes to them [the Jews] a Book [this

Qur’ân] from Allah, confirming that in their possession -

though before that they were praying for a signal triumph

over those who disbelieved and when there comes to them

that which they know [to be the Truth] they disbelieve

therein. The curse of Allah is on disbelievers.

[1] The reference is to the wars between the Arab tribes of Al-Madînah

in which the Jews used to take part as allies of one and the other, Jew

waging war upon Jew.

[2] “The pure Spirit” is a term for the angel of Revelation, Gabriel (on

whom be peace).




90. Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should

disbelieve in that which Allah has revealed, grudging that

Allah should reveal of His bounty to whom He wills of

His bondmen.[1] They have incurred anger upon anger.

For disbelievers is a shameful doom.

91. And when it is said to them. Believe in that which Allah has

revealed, they say: We believe in that which was revealed

to us. And they disbelieve in that which comes after it,

though it is the truth confirming that which they possess.

Say [to them, O Muhammad]: Why then you killed the

Prophets of Allah previously, if you are [indeed] believers?

92. And Moses came to you with clear proofs [of Allah’s

sovereignty], yet, while he was away, you took the calf [in

worship] and you were wrong-doers.

93. And when We took your covenant and caused the Mount

to tower above you, [saying]: Hold fast by that which We

have given you, and hear [Our Word], they said: We hear

and we disobey. And [worship of] the calf was made to

sink into their hearts because of their disbelief. Say [to

them]: Evil is that which your belief enjoins on you, if

you are believers.

94. Say [to them]: If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah is

indeed for you alone and not for others of mankind [as

you pretend], then long for death [for you must long for

death] if you are truthful.

95. But they will never long for it, because of that which their

own hands have sent before them. Allah is Aware of


96. And you will find them greediest of mankind for life and

[greedier] than the polytheists. [Each] one of them would

like to be allowed to live a thousand years. And to live [a

thousand years] would by no means remove him from the

doom. Allah is Seer of what they do.

[1] See v. 2,3, footnote.



97. Say [O Muhammad, to mankind]: Who is an enemy to

Gabriel! For he it is who brought down [this Qur’ân] to your

heart by Allah’s leave, confirming that which was [revealed]

before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers;

98. Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His

messengers, and Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! Allah

[Himself] is an enemy to the disbelievers.

99. Verily We have revealed to you clear verses, and only the

miscreants will disbelieve in them.

100. Is it ever so that when you took a covenant a party of

them set it aside? The truth is, most of them believe not.

101. And when there comes to them a messenger from Allah,

confirming that which they possess, a party of those

who have received the Scripture fling the Book of Allah

behind their backs as if they knew not,

102. And they follow that which the devils falsely related

against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon disbelieved

not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic

and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel,

Harut and Marut. Nor did they [the two angels] teach

it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation,

therefore disbelieve not [in the guidance of Allah].

And from these two [angels] people learn that by which

they cause division between a man and his wife; but

they injure thereby no-one save by Allah’s leave. And

they learn that which harms them and benefits them

not. And surely they do know that he who purchases

therein will have no [happy] portion in the Hereafter;

and surely evil is the price for which they sell their

souls, if they but knew.[1]

[1] The reference is to the occult science practised by the Jews, the origin

of which was ascribed to Solomon.




103. And if they had believed and feared Allah, a recompense

from Allah would be better, if they only knew.

104. O you who believe, say not [to the Prophet]: “Listen to

us” but say “Look upon us,”[1] and be you listeners. For

disbelievers is a painful doom.

105. Neither those who disbelieve among the People of the

Scripture[2] nor the polytheists love that there should be

sent down to you any good thing from your Lord. But

Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills, and Allah

is the possessor of infinite bounty.

106. Nothing of Our revelation [even a single verse] do We

abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We bring [in place]

one better or the like thereof. Know you not that Allah is

Able to do all things.

107. Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the

Sovereignty of the heavens and earth; and you have not,

beside Allah, any guardian or helper?

108. Or would you question your messenger as Moses was

questioned previously? He whoever exchanges disbelief

for faith, verily he has gone astray from a plain way.

109. Many of the People of the Scripture long to make you

disbelievers after your belief, through envy on their own

account, after the truth has become manifest to them.

Forgive and be indulgent [toward them] until Allah gives

His command. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.

110. And establish prayer and pay the poor-due; and whatever

of good you send before [you] for your souls, you will

find it with Allah. Lo! Allah is Seer of what you do.

[1] The first word which the Muslims used to call the Prophet’s attention

respectfully, Râ’ina, the Jews could change into an insult by a slight


[2] i.e. Jews and Christians.



111. And they say: None enters Paradise unless he be a Jew or

a Christian. These are their own desires. Say: Bring your

proof [of what you state] if you are truthful.

112. Nay, but whoever submits his face [himself] to Allah

while doing good, his reward is with his Lord; and there

shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.

113. And the Jews say the Christians follow nothing [true], and

the Christians say the Jews follow nothing [true]; yet both

recite the Scripture. Even thus speak those who know not.

Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection

concerning that wherein they used to differ.

114. And who does greater wrong than he who forbids the

approach to the mosques of Allah lest His name should

be mentioned therein, and strives for their ruin? As for

such, it was never meant that they should enter them

except in fear. Theirs in the world is disgrace and theirs

in the Hereafter is an awful doom.

115. To Allah belong the East and the West, and to whithersoever

you turn, there is Allah’s Face. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing,


116. And they say: Allah has taken to Himself a Son. Be He

glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heaven and the

earth is His. All are subservient to Him.

117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth! When He

decrees a matter, He says to it only: Be! and it is.

118. And those who do not know say: Why does not Allah

speak to us, or some sign come to us? Even thus, as they

now speak, spoke those [who were] before them. Their

hearts are all alike. We have made clear the Signs for

people who are certain.




119. Lo! We have sent you [O Muhammad] with the truth, a

bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And you will not be

asked about the owners of Hellfire.

120. And the Jews will not be pleased with you, nor will the

Christians, till you follow their religion. Say: Lo! the

guidance of Allah [Himself] is the [only] Guidance. And

if you should follow their desires after the knowledge

which has come to you, then would you have from Allah

no protecting guardian nor helper.

121.Those to whom We have given the Book, who recite

it with its true recital, those believe in it. And whoso

disbelieves in it, those are they who are the losers.

122. O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I

favoured you and how I preferred you to [all] the worlds.

123. And guard [yourselves] against a day when no soul will

in anything avail another, nor will compensation be

accepted from it, nor will intercession be of use to it;

nor will they be helped.

124.And [remember] when his Lord tried Abraham with [His]

commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have

appointed you a leader for mankind. [Abraham] said:

And of my offspring [will there be leaders]? He said: My

covenant includes not wrong-doers.

125. And when We made the House [at Mecca] a resort for

mankind and a sanctuary, [saying]: Take as your place of

prayer the place where Abraham stood. And We imposed

a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, [saying]: Purify My

house for those who perform Tawaf and those who

stay therein for worship and those who bow down and

prostrate themselves [in prayer].

126. And when Abraham said: My Lord! Make this a city of

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