narrated that Prophet Ayyoob's mother was a daughter of all. There have also been other statements on his lineage. Imam Ibn 'Asakir stated that Prophet Ayyoob's full name was Ayyoob, Ibn (son of) Mose, Ibn Razeh, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac (Ishaq), Ibn Abraham (Ibraheem), may Allah exalt the mention of them all. Others stated that he was Ayyoob, Ibn Mose, Ibn Rimil, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac (Ishaq, Ibn Jacob (Ya'qoob) Imam Ibn Ishaq
The first opinion is the most plausible, because Prophet Ayyoob was a descendant of Ibraheem's offspring, as Allah Almighty declares in the Quran (what means): "And that was Our [conclusive] argument which we gave Ibraaheem against his people. We raise by degrees whom We will. Indeed, your Lord is Wise and Knowing. And We gave to him [i.e., Ibraheem] Ishaq [Isaac] and Ya'qoob [Jacob] – all [of them] We guided. And Nooh [Noah], We guided before; and among his descendants, Dawood [David] and Sulayman [Solomon] and Ayyoob [Job] and Yoosuf [Joseph] and Moosa [Moses] and Haroon [Aaron]. Thus do We reward the doers of good." [Quran 6:83-84]
Allah Praises Him
Allah the Almighty praised His worshipper Ayyoob, may Allah exalt his mention, in His Glorious Quran, Saying (what means): "…Indeed, We found him patient, an excellent servant. Indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah]." [Quran 38:44]
Ayyoob was repentant, remembering Allah with thankfulness, patience, and steadfastness. This was the cause of his rescue and the secret of Allah's praising him.
A group of angels were discussing Allah's other human creatures, how those who were humble earned Allah's pleasure, while those who were arrogant incurred His displeasure. One of the angels remarked: "The best creature on earth today is Ayyoob, a man of noble character who displays great patience and always remembers his Generous Lord. He is an excellent model for the worshippers of Allah. In return, his Lord has blessed him with a long life and plenty of servants, as well as the needy and the poor sharing in his good fortune; he feeds and clothes the poor and buys slaves to set them free. He makes those who receive his charity feel as if they are favouring him, so kind and gentle is he."
Satan's Envy of Him
Iblees (Satan) overhearing all of this, became annoyed. He planned to entice Ayyoob to corruption and disbelief, so he hastened to him. He tried to distract Ayyoob from his prayers by whispering to him about the good things in life, but Ayyoob was a true believer and would not let evil thoughts tempt him. This disturbed Iblees even more; thus he began to hate Ayyoob with even greater fervour.
Iblees complained to Allah about Ayyoob . He said that although he was continuously glorifying Allah, he was not doing so out of his sincerity but to satisfy Allah so that his wealth should not be taken away. It was all a show, all out of greed. "If You remove his wealth, then You will find that his tongue will no longer mention Your name and his praying will stop," he said to Allah.
Allah told Iblees that Ayyoob was one of His most sincere devotees. He did not worship Him because of the favours; his worship stemmed from his heart and had nothing to do with material things. But to prove to Iblees the depth of Ayyoob's sincerity and patience, Allah allowed him to do whatever he and his helpers wished with Ayyoob's wealth.
Iblees was ecstatic. He gathered his helpers and set about destroying Ayyoob's cattle, servants and farms until he was left with no possessions. Rubbing his hands in glee, Iblees appeared before Ayyoob in the guise of a wise old man and said to him: "All your wealth is lost; some people say that it is because you gave too much in charity and that you are wasting your time with your continuous prayers to Allah. Others say that Allah has brought this upon you in order to please your enemies. If Allah had the capacity to prevent harm, then He would have protected your wealth."
True to his belief, Ayyoob replied: "What Allah has taken away from me belongs to Him. I was only its trustee for a while. He gives to whom He wills and withholds from whom He wills." With these words, Ayyoob again prostrated to his Lord.
When Iblees saw this, he felt frustrated, so he again addressed Allah: "I have stripped Ayyoob of all his possessions, but he still remains grateful to You. However he is only hiding his disappointment, for he places great store by his many children. The real test of a parent is through his children. You will see how Ayyoob will reject You."
Allah again granted Iblees authority, but warned him that it would not reduce Ayyoob's faith in His Lord nor his patience.
Iblees again gathered his helpers and set about his evil deeds. He shook the fountain of the house in which Ayyoob's children were living and sent the building crashing, killing all of them. Then he went to Ayyoob disguised as a man who had come to sympathise with him. In a comforting tone he said to Ayyoob : "The circumstances under which your children died were sad. Surely, your Lord is not rewarding you properly for all your prayers." Having said this, Iblees waited anxiously, hoping Ayyoob was now ready to reject Allah.
But again Ayyoob disappointed him by replying: "Allah sometimes gives and sometimes takes. He is sometimes pleased and sometimes displeased with our deeds. Whether a thing is beneficial or harmful to me, I will remain firm in my belief and remain thankful to my Creator." Then Ayyoob prostrated to his Lord. At this, Iblees was extremely vexed.
After failing to make Ayyoob give up his worship of Allah after destroying his wealth and children, Iblees (Satan), may Allah curse him, called on Allah: "O my Lord! Ayyoob's wealth is gone, his children are dead, but he is still healthy in body, and as long as he enjoys good health he will continue to worship You in the hope of regaining his wealth and producing more children. Grant me authority over his body so that I may weaken it. He will surely neglect worshipping You and will thus become disobedient."
Allah wanted to teach Iblees a lesson that Ayyoob was a devoted servant of his Lord, so He granted Iblees his third request but placed a condition: "I give you authority over his body but not over his soul, intellect or heart, for in these places resides the knowledge of Me and My religion."
Armed with this new authority, Iblees began to take revenge on Ayyoob's body, and filled it with disease until it was reduced to mere skin and bone and he suffered severe pain. But through all the suffering, Ayyoob remained strong in his faith, patiently bearing all the hardships without complaining.
Allah's righteous servant did not despair or turn to others for help but remained hopeful of Allah's mercy. Even close relatives and friends deserted him. Only his kind, loving wife stayed with him. In his hour of need, she showered her kindness on him and cared for him. She remained his sole companion and comforter through the many years of suffering.
The life-summary of Ayyoob .
Imam Ibn 'Asakir narrated: "Ayyoob was a man having much wealth of all kinds; beasts, slaves, sheep, vast lands, and many children. All those favours were withdrawn from him and he was physically afflicted as well. Never a single organ of his was sound, except his heart and tongue, with both of which he glorified Allah, the Almighty, constantly, day and night. His disease lasted for a long time until his visitors felt disgusted with him. His friends kept away from him and people abstained from visiting him. No one felt sympathy for him except his wife. She took good care of him, knowing his former charity and pity for her."
Therefore, Iblees became desperate. He consulted his helpers, but they could not advise him. They asked: "How is it that your cleverness cannot work against Ayyoob, yet you succeeded in misleading Adam, the father of man, out of
Iblees went to Ayyoob's wife in the form of a man. "Where is your husband?" he asked her. She pointed to an almost lifeless form crumbled on the bed and said: "There he is, suspended between life and death." Iblees reminded her of the days when Ayyoob had good health, wealth and children. Suddenly, the painful memories of years of hardship overcame her, and she burst into tears. She said to Ayyoob : "How long are you going to bear this torture from our Lord? Are we to remain without wealth, children or friends forever? Why don't you call upon Allah to remove this suffering?"
Ayyoob sighed, and in a soft voice replied: "Iblees must have whispered to you and made you dissatisfied. Tell me, how long did I enjoy good health and riches?" She replied: "Eighty years." Then Ayyoob asked: "How long have I been suffering like this?" She replied: "Seven years." Ayyoob then told her: "In that case I am ashamed to call on my Lord to remove the hardship, for I have not suffered longer than the years of my good health and plenty. It seems your faith has weakened and you are dissatisfied with the fate of Allah. If I ever regain health, I swear I will punish you with a hundred strokes! From this day onward, I forbid myself to eat or drink anything by your hand. Leave me alone and let my Lord do with me as He pleases."
Crying bitterly and with a heavy heart, she had no choice but to leave him and seek shelter elsewhere. In this helpless state, Ayyoob turned to Allah, not to complain, but to seek His mercy, saying (what means): "…'Indeed, adversity has touched me, and You are the most merciful of the merciful.' So We responded to him and removed what afflicted him of adversity. And We gave him [back] his family and the like thereof with them as a mercy from Us and a reminder for the worshippers [of Allah]." [Quran 21:83-84]
Almighty Allah records Prophet Ayyoob's invocation in the verses (which mean): "And remember Our servant Ayyoob, when he called to his Lord: 'Indeed, Satan has touched me with hardship and torment.' [So he was told]: 'Strike [the ground] with your foot; this is a [spring for] a cool bath and drink.' And We granted him his family and a like [number] with them as mercy from Us and a reminder for those of understanding." [Quran 38:41-43]
Ayyoob obeyed this instruction, and almost immediately his good health was restored. Meanwhile, his faithful wife could no longer bear to be parted from her husband and returned to him to beg his forgiveness, desiring to serve him. On entering her house, she was amazed at the sudden change: Ayyoob was again healthy! She embraced him and thanked Allah for His mercy.
Ayyoob was worried, for he had taken an oath to punish her with a hundred strokes if he had regained health but he had no desire to hurt her. He knew if he did not fulfil the oath, he would be guilty of breaking a promise to Allah. Therefore, out of His wisdom and mercy, Allah came to the assistance of His faithful servant and advised him with (what means): "…'Take in your hand a bunch [of grass] and strike with it and do not break your oath.' Indeed, We found him patient, an excellent servant. Indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah]." [Quran 38:44]
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said: "While Ayyoob was naked, taking a bath, a swarm of gold locusts fell on him, and so he started collecting them in his garment. His Lord called him: "O Ayyoob! Have I not made you too rich to need what you see?" He said: "Yes, My Lord! But I cannot shun Your Blessings." [Al-Bukhari]