Articles




PART 30


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78-THE TIDINGS


36. Nor are they permitted to put forth excuses.


37. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


38. This is the Day of Decision, We have brought you and the


men of old together.


39. If now you have any trick [or plot], then plot against Me.


40. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


41. Lo! the pious are amid shade and fountains,


42. And fruits such as they desire.


43. [To them it is said:] Eat, drink comfortably, in return for


what you used to do.


44. Thus do We reward the good-doers.


45. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


46. Eat and take your ease [on earth] a little. Lo! you are criminals.


47. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


48. When it is said to them: Bow down [in prayer], they bow


not down!


49. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


50. In what statement, after this [the Qur’ân], will they believe?


78- THE TIDINGS [AN-NABA’]


Revealed at Mecca, [40 verses]


An-Nabâ’ takes its name from a word in the second verse.


An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


? . 1 Whereof do they question one another?


2. [It is] of the great tidings,


3. Concerning which they are in disagreement.


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4. Nay, but they will come to know!


5. Nay, again, but they will come to know!


6. Have We not made the earth a resting place,


7. And the high mountains bulwarks?


8. And We have created you in pairs,


9. And have appointed your sleep for rest,


10. And have appointed the night as a cloak,


11. And have appointed the day for livelihood.


12. And We have built above you seven strong [heavens],


13. And have appointed a dazzling lamp [sun],


14. And have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water,


15. Thereby to produce grain and plant,


16. And gardens of thick foliage.


17. Lo! the Day of Decision is a fixed time,


18. A day when the Horn is blown, and you come in multitudes,


19. And the heaven is opened and becomes as gates,


20. And the mountains are set in motion and become as a mirage.


21. Lo! Hell lurks in ambush,


22. A place of return for the transgressors.


23. They will abide therein for ages.


24. Therein taste they neither coolness nor [any] drink


25. Save boiling water and [foul] purulence:


26. Reward proportioned [to their misdeeds].


27. For lo! they looked not for a reckoning;


28. They called Our verses false with strong denial.


29. Everything have We recorded in a Book.


30. So taste [of that which you have earned]. No increase do


We give you save of doom.


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79-THOSE WHO


DRAG FORTH


31. Lo! for the righteous is achievement–


32. Gardens and vineyards,


33. And voluptuous women of equal age;


34. And a full cup.


35. There hear they never vain discourse, nor lying–


36. Requital from your Lord– a gift [made due by] account,


37. Lord of the heavens and the earth, and [all] that is


between them, the Beneficent; with Whom none can dare


to converse.


38. On the day when the angels and the Spirit [Gabriel] stand


arrayed, they speak not, saving him whom the Beneficent


allows and who speaks right.


39. That is the True Day. So he who wills should seek recourse


to his Lord a [way of] return.


40. Lo! We warn you of a doom at hand, a day whereon a man


will look on that which his own hands have sent before,


and the disbeliever will cry: “Would that I were dust!”


79- “THOSE WHO DRAG FORTH” [AN-NAZI’AT]


Revealed at Mecca, [46 verses]


An-Nazi’at takes its name from a word in the first verse.


An early Mecca


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. And by those [angels] who extract [the souls of the wicked]


with violence,


2. And by those [angels] who gently take out [the souls of


the believers];


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79-THOSE WHO


DRAG FORTH


3. And by those that swim along [stars] floating,


4. And by the angels hastening,


5. And those who arrange [each] matter,


6. On the day when the first Horn resounds


7. And the second follows it,


8. On that day hearts, will tremble


9. While eyes are downcast with dread


10. [Now] they are saying: Shall we really be restored to our


first state


11. Even after we are crumbled bones?


12. They say: Then that would be a return with loss.


13. Surely it will need but one shout,


14. And lo! they will be awakened in the open plain.


15. Has there come to you the story of Moses?


16. How his Lord called him in the sacred valley of Tuwa,


17. [Saying:] Go you to Pharaoh– Lo! he has rebelled–


18. And say [to him]: Have you [will] to grow [in grace]?


19. Then I will guide you to your Lord and you shall fear


[Him].


20. And he showed him the greatest sign.


21. But he belied and disobeyed,


22. Then he turned away in haste, striving


23. Then gathered he and summoned


24. And proclaimed: “I [Pharaoh] am your Lord the Highest.”


25. So Allah seized him [and made him] an example for the


after [life] and for the former.


26. Lo! herein is indeed a lesson for him who fears.


27. Are you the harder to create, or is the heaven that He built?


28. He raised the height thereof and ordered it;


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80-HE FROWNED


29. And He made dark the night thereof, and He brought


forth the morning thereof.


30. And after that He spread the earth,


31. And produced therefrom the water thereof and the


pasture thereof,


32. And He made fast the mountains,


33. A provision for you and for your cattle.


34. But when the great disaster comes,


35. The day when man will call to mind his [whole] endeavour,


36. And Hell will stand forth visible to him who sees,


37. Then, as for him who rebelled


38. And preferred the life of the world,


39. Lo! Hell will be his abode.


40. But as for him who feared to stand before his Lord and


restrained his soul from lust,


41. Lo! the Paradise will be his abode.


42. They ask you of the Hour: when will it come to port?


43. Why [ask they]? What have you to tell thereof?


44. To your Lord belongs [knowledge of] the term thereof.


45. You are but a warner to him who fears it.


46. On the day when they see it, it will be as if they had but


tarried for an evening or the morning thereof.


80- “HE FROWNED” [‘ABASA]


Revealed at Mecca, [42 verses]


‘Abasa, “He Frowned” takes its name from the first word.


One day when the Prophet was in conversation with one of


the great men of Qureysh (his own tribe), seeking to persuade


him of the truth of Al-Islâm, a blind man came and asked a


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80-HE FROWNED


question concerning the faith. The Prophet was annoyed at the


interruption, frowned and turned away from the blind man. In


this Sûrah he is told that a man’s importance is not to be judged


from his appearance or worldly station. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. He frowned and turned away


2. Because the blind man came to him [interrupting].


3. What could inform you but that he might be purified.


4. Or take heed and so the remembrance might avail him?


5. As for him who thinks himself independent,


6. To him you pay regard.


7. Yet it is not your concern if he will not be purified.


8. But as for him who comes to you with earnest purpose


9. While he fears,


10. From him you are distracted.


11. Nay, but verily it is an Admonishment,


12. So let whosoever will pay heed to it,


13. [It is] in Records held in honour.


14. Exalted, purified,


15. [Set down] by the hands of Messenger-angles.


16. Noble and righteous.


17. Be cursed [the disbelieving] man! How ungrateful he is!


18. From what thing does He create him?


19. From a sperm-drop He created him and proportioned him,


20. Then makes the way easy for him,


21. Then causes him to die, and buries him;


22. Then, when He wills, He will resurrect him.


23. Nay, but [man] has not done what He commanded him.


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81-THE OVERTHROWING


24. Let man look at his food:


25. How We pour water in showers


26. Then split the earth in clefts


27. And cause the grain to grow therein


28. And grapes and green fodder


29. And olive-trees and palm-trees


30. And garden-closes of thick foliage


31. And fruits and grasses:


32. Provision for you and your cattle.


33. But when the Deafening blast comes


34. On the day when a man flees from his brother


35. And his mother and his father


36. And his wife and his children,


37. Every man that day will have concern enough to make


him heedless [of others].


38. On that day faces will be bright as dawn,


39. Laughing, rejoicing at good news;


40. And other faces, on that day, with dust upon them,


41. Veiled in darkness,


42. Those are the disbelievers, the wicked.


81- THE OVERTHROWING [AT-TAKWIR]


Revealed at Mecca, [29 verses]


At-Takwîr takes its name from a word in verse 1. Verses 8


and 9 contain an allusion to the practice of the pagan Arabs


of burying alive girl-children whom they deemed superfluous.


An early Meccan Sûrah.


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81-THE OVERTHROWING


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. When the sun is overthrown,


2. And when the stars fall,


3. And when the mountains are moved,


4. And when the pregnant she-camels are abandoned,


5. And when the wild beasts are herded together,


6. And when the seas are filled with flame,


7. And when souls are reunited with their bodies,


8. And when the girl-child that was buried alive is asked


9. For what sin she was killed,


10. And when the pages [of deeds] are laid open,


11. And when the sky is torn away,


12. And when Hell is lighted,


13. And when the Paradise is brought near,


14. [Then] every soul will know what it has brought.


15. Oh, but I call to witness the planets that recede,


16. The stars that run [their courses] and disappear,


17. And the close of night,


18. And by the breath of dawn


19. That this in truth, the Qur’ân is a word [conveyed by] an


honoured messenger [Gabriel],


20. Mighty, established in the presence of the Lord of the


Throne,


21. [One] to be obeyed [by the angels], and trustworthy [in


the heavens];


22. And your companion [Muhammad] is not mad.


23. Surely he [Muhammad] saw him [Gabriel] on the clear


horizon.


24. And he is not withholder of [the knowledge of] the


Unseen.


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82-THE CLEAVING


25. Nor is this [the Qur’ân] the utterance of an outcast devil.


26. To where then you go?


27. This [the Qur’ân] is nothing else than a reminder to [all]


the worlds,


28. To whomsoever of you wills to walk straight.


29. And you will not, unless [it be] that Allah wills, the Lord


of the worlds.


82- THE CLEAVING [AL-INFITAR]


Revealed at Mecca, [19 verses]


Al-Infitâr takes its name from a word in verse 1. An early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. When the heaven is cleft asunder,


2. When the planets are dispersed,


3. When the seas are burst forth,


4. And the graves are overturned,


5. A soul will know what it has sent before [it] and what left


behind.


6. O man! What has deceived you concerning your Lord, the


Bountiful,


7. Who created you, then fashioned, then proportioned you?


8. Into whatsoever form He wills, He assembled you


9. Nay, but they deny the Recompense.


10. Lo! there are above you guardians,


11. Noble and recording,


12. Who know [all] that you do.


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83-DEFRAUDING


13. Lo! the righteous verily will be in delight.


14. And lo! the wicked verily will be in Hell;


15. They will burn therein on the Day of Recompense,


16. And will not be absent thence.


17. Ah, what will convey to you what the Day of Recompense


is!


18. Again, what will convey to you what the Day of


Recompense is!


19. A day on which no soul has power at all for any [other]


soul. The [absolute] command on that day is Allah’s.


83- DEFRAUDING [AL-MUTAFFIFEEN]


Revealed at Mecca, [36 verses]


Al-Mutaffifeen, “Defrauding,” takes its name from a word


in verse 1. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Woe to the defrauders:


2. Those who when they take the measure from people


demand it full,


3. But if they measure to them or weigh for them, they cause


them loss.


4. Do such [men] not consider that they will be resurrected


[for reckoning],


5. To a Great Day,


6. The day when [all] mankind stand before the Lord of the


Worlds?


7. Nay, but the record of the vile is in Sijjîn–


8. Ah! what will convey to you what Sijjîn is!–


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83-DEFRAUDING


9. An inscribed record.


10. Woe to the repudiators on that day!


11. Those who deny the Day of Recompense.


12. Which none denies save each sinful transgressor,


13. Who, when you recite to him Our verses, says: [Mere]


fables of the men of old.


14. Nay, but that which they have earned is rust upon their


hearts.


15. Nay, but surely on that day they will be covered from [the


mercy of] their Lord.


16. Then lo! they verily will burn in Hell,


17. And it will be said [to them]: This is that which you used


to deny.


18. Nay, but the record of the righteous is in Iliyin–


19. Ah, what will convey to you what Iliyin is!–


20. An inscribed record,


21. Witnessed by those who are brought near [to their Lord].


22. Lo! the righteous verily are in delight,


23. On couches, gazing,


24. You will know in their faces the radiance of delight


25. They are given to drink of a pure wine, sealed,


26. Whose seal is musk––For this let [all] those strive who


strive for bliss––


27. And mixed with water of Tasnîm,


28. A spring whence those brought near to Allah drink.


29. Lo! the criminals used to laugh at those who believed,


30. And wink one to another when they passed them;


31. And when they returned to their own folk, they returned


jesting;


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84-THE SUNDERING


32. And when they saw them they said: Lo! these have gone


astray.


33. Yet they were not sent as guardians over them.


34. This day it is those who believe who have the laugh of


disbelievers,


35. On high couches, gazing.


36. Are not the disbelievers paid for what they used to do?


84- THE SUNDERING [AL-INSHIQAQ]


Revealed at Mecca,[25 verses]


Al-Inshiqâq, “The Sundering” takes its name from a word


in verse 1. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. When the heaven is split asunder


2. And attentive to her Lord in fear, and was obliged to do so.


3. And when the earth is spread out


4. And has cast out all that was in her, and is empty


5. And attentive to her Lord in fear, and was obliged to do so.


6. You, verily, O man, are working toward your Lord a work


which you will meet.


7. Then whoso is given his record in his right hand


8. He truly will receive an easy reckoning


9. And will return to his folk in joy.


10. But whoso is given his record behind his back,


11. He surely will invoke destruction


12. And be thrown to scorching fire.


13. He verily lived joyous with his folk,


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85-THE MANSIONS


OF THE STARS


14. He verily deemed that he would never return [to Allah].


15. Nay, but lo! his Lord is ever looking on him!


16. Oh, I swear by the twilight glow,


17. And by the night and all that it enshrouds,


18. And by the moon when she is at the full,


19. That you shall journey on from stage to stage [in this life


and in the Hereafter].


20. What ails them, then, that they believe not


21. And, when the Qur’ân is recited to them, prostrate not


[to Allah]?


22. Nay, but those who disbelieve will deny;


23. And Allah knows best what they are hiding.


24. So give them tidings of a painful doom,


25. Save those who believe and do good deeds, for theirs is a


reward unfailing.


85- THE MANSIONS OF THE STARS[AL-BURUJ]


Revealed at Mecca, [22 verses]


Al-Burûj takes its name from a word in verse 1, which I


have translated “mansions of the stars” The word has the


meaning of towers or mansions and is applied to the signs of


the Zodiac. Verses 4 to 7 are generally taken to refer to the


massacre of the Christians of Najran in Yemen by a Jewish


king Dhû Nawâs, an event of great historical importance


since it caused the intervention of the Negus and led to the


Abyssinian supremacy in Yemen which lasted until the War


of the Elephant (Sûrah 105) in the Prophet’s year of birth.


Professor Horowitz thinks that the words “owners of the


ditch, of the fuel-fed fire” refer not to any historical event


but to the condition of all persecutors in the hereafter. An


early Meccan Sûrah.


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85-THE MANSIONS


OF THE STARS


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the heaven, holding mansions of the stars,


2. And by the Promised Day.


3. And by the witness and that whereto he bears testimony,


4. Cursed were the companions of the ditch


5. Of the fuel-fed fire,


6. When they sat by it,


7. And were themselves the witnesses of what they did to the


believers.


8. They had nothing against them save that they believed in


Allah, the Mighty, the Praiseworthy,


9. Him unto Whom belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens


and the earth; and Allah is of all things the Witness.


10. Lo! they who persecute believing men and believing


women and repent not, theirs verily will be the doom of


Hell, and theirs the doom of burning.


11. Lo! those who believe and do good deeds, theirs will be


Gardens underneath which rivers flow. That is the Great


Success.


12. Lo! the punishment of your Lord is stern.


13. Lo! He it is Who produces, then reproduces,


14. And He is the Forgiving, the Loving,


15. Lord of the Throne, the Glorious,


16. Doer of what He wills.


17. Has there come to you the story of the hosts


18. Of Pharaoh and [the tribe of] Thamûd?


19. Nay, but those who disbelieve live in denial


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86-THE MORNING


STAR


20. And Allah, surrounds them.


21. Nay, but it is a Glorious Qur’ân


22. On a preserved tablet.


86- THE MORNING STAR [AT-TARIQ]


Revealed at Mecca, [17 verses]


At-Târiq takes its name from a word in verse 1. There


are other meanings to the word Târiq, but I have chosen that


which must have occurred to every hearer of this Sûrah,


especially as in verse 3 it is stated that a star is meant. An early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the heaven and the night-comer


2. -–Ah, what will tell you what the night-comer is!


3. -–The piercing Star!


4. No human soul but has a guardian over it.


5. So let man consider from what he is created.


6. He is created from a gushing fluid


7. That issued from between the loins and ribs.


8. Lo! He verily is Able to return him [to life]


9. On the day when hidden thoughts will be put in trial.


10. Then will he have no might nor any helper.


11. By the heaven which gives the returning rain,


12. And the earth which splits [with the growth of trees and


plants]


13. Lo! this [Qur’ân] is a conclusive word,


14. And it is not amusement.


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87-THE MOST HIGH


15. Lo! they plot a plot [against you, O Muhammad]


16. And I plot a plot [against them].


17. So give a respite to the disbelievers. Deal you gently with


them for a while.


87- THE MOST HIGH [AL-A’ALA]


Revealed at Mecca, [19 verses]


Al-A’ala takes its name from a word in verse 1. An early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Glory the name of your Lord the Most High,


2. Who creates, then proportioned;


3. Who measures, then guides;


4. Who brings forth the pasture,


5. Then turns it to dark stubble.


6. We shall make you recite [O Muhammad] so that you shall


not forget


7. Save that which Allah wills. Lo! He knows the disclosed and


that which still is hidden;


8. And We shall ease your way to the state of ease.


9. Therefor remind [men], for of use is the reminder.


10. He will heed who fears,


11. But the most hapless will avoid it,


12. He who will be thrown to the great fire and taste its


burning,


13. Wherein he will neither die nor live.


14. He is successful who purifies himself,


15. And remembers the Name of his Lord, so prays.


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88-THE OVERWHELMING


16. But you prefer the life of the world


17. Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting.


18. Lo! This is in the former scriptures,


19. The scriptures of Abraham and Moses.


88- THE OVERWHELMING [AL-CHASHIYAH]


Revealed at Mecca, [26 verses]


Al-Ghâshiyah takes its name from a word in verse 1. An


early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Has there come to you tidings of the Overwhelming [event


i.e. the Day of Resurrection]?


2. On that day [some] faces will be downcast,


3. Toiling, weary,


4. Scorched by burning fire,


5. They will be given a drink from a boiling spring,


6. No food for them save bitter thorn-food


7. Which does not nourish nor release from hunger.


8. In that day other faces will be joyful,


9. Glad for their past effort,


10. In a high Garden


11. Where they hear no idle speech,


12. Wherein is a gushing spring,


13. Wherein are couches raised


14. And cups set at hand


15. And cushions set in rows


16. And silken carpets spread


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89-THE DAWN


17. Will they not look at the camels, how they are created?


18. And at the heaven, how it is raised?


19. And at the mountains, how they are erected?


20. And at the earth, how it is spread out?


21. Remind them, for you are but a reminder,


22. You are not at all a controller over them.


23. But whoso is averse and disbelieves,


24. Allah will punish him with direst punishment.


25. Lo! to Us is their return


26. And Ours their reckoning.


89- THE DAWN [AL-FAJR]


Revealed at Mecca, [30 verses]


Al-Fajr takes its name from verse 1. A very early Meccan


Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the Dawn


2. And ten nights,


3. And the Even and the Odd,


4. And the night when it departs,


5. There surely is an oath for thinking man.


6. Do you not consider how your Lord dealt with [the tribe


of] A’âd,


7. With Iram[1] ––who had lofty-columns,


8. The like of which was not created in the lands;


9. And with [the tribe of] Thamûd, who carved out the rocks


in the valley;


[1] Another name of A’âd, to whom Prophet Hûd was sent.


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89-THE DAWN


10. And with Pharaoh, owner of the stakes,


11. Who [all] were rebellious [to Allah] in these lands,


12. And increased therein the corruption?


13. Therefore your Lord poured on them a scourge of His


punishment.


14. Lo! your Lord is ever watchful.


15. As for man, whenever his Lord tries him by honouring


him, and is gracious to him, he says: My Lord honours


me.


16. But whenever He tries him by straitening his means of


life, he says: My Lord despises me.


17. Nay, but you [for your part] honour not the orphan


18. And urge not on the feeding of the poor,


19. And you devour inheritance with devouring greed


20. And love wealth with abounding love.


21. Nay, but when the earth is ground to atoms, grinding,


grinding,


22. And your Lord shall come with angels, rank on rank,


23. And Hell is brought near that day; on that day man will


remember, but how will the remembrance [then avail


him]?


24. He will say: Ah, would that I had sent before me [some


provision] for my life!


25. None punishes as He will punish on that day!


26. None binds as He then will bind.


27. But ah! you soul at peace!


28. Return to your Lord, content in His good pleasure!


29. And enter among My bondmen!


30. And enter My Paradise!


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90-THE CITY


90- THE CITY [AL-BALAD]


Revealed at Mecca, [20 verses]


Al-Balad takes its name from a word in verse 1. A very early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Nay, I swear by this city, [Mecca]––


2. And you are an indweller of this city––


3. And the begetter [i.e. Adam] and that which he begot [i.e.


his progeny],


4. We verily have created man in toil:


5. Thinks he that none has power over him?


6. And he says: I have wasted vast wealth:


7. Thinks he that none beholds him?


8. Have We not made for him two eyes?


9. And a tongue and two lips,


10. And have shown him the two ways [good and evil]?


11. But he has not attempted through the difficult pass.


12. Ah, what will convey to you what the difficult pass is! ––


13. [It is] to free a slave,


14. And to feed in the day of hunger


15. An orphan near of kin,


16. Or some poor wretch in misery,


17. And to be of those who believe and exhort one another


to perseverance and patience and exhort one another to


pity and compassion.


18. Those are the companions of the right.


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91-THE SUN


19. But those who disbelieve Our signs, Those are the


companions of the left.


20. Over them will be fire closed in.


91- THE SUN [ASH-SHAMS]


Revealed at Mecca, [15 verses]


Ash-Shams takes its name from a word in verse 1. A very


early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the sun and his brightness,


2. And the moon when she follows him,


3. And the day when it reveals him,


4. And the night when it enshrouds him,


5. And the heaven and Him Who built it,


6. And the earth and Him Who spread it,


7. And a soul and Him who perfected it


8. And inspired it [with conscience of] what is wrong for it


and [what is] right for it.


9. He is indeed successful who purifies it,


10. And he is indeed a failure who corrupts it.


11. [The tribe of] Thamûd denied [the truth] in their


transgression.


12. When the basest of them broke forth


13. And the messenger of Allah [Salih] said: It is the shecamel


of Allah, so let her drink!


14. But they denied him, and they hamstrung her, so Allah


doomed them for their sin and destroyed [their dwellings].


15. He [Allah] dreads not the sequel [of events].


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649


92-THE NIGHT


92- THE NIGHT [AL-LEYL]


Revealed at Mecca, [21 verses]


Al-Leyl takes its name from a word in verse 1. A very early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the night enshrouding


2. And the day resplendent


3. And Him Who has created male and female,


4. Lo! your effort is dispersed [toward different ends].


5. As for him who gives and fears Allah


6. And believes in goodness;


7. Surely We will ease his way to the state of ease.


8. But as for him who hoards and deems himself independent,


9. And disbelieves in goodness;


10. Surely We will ease his way to adversity.


11. His riches will not save him when he perishes.


12. Lo! Ours it is [to give] the guidance


13. And lo! to Us belong the Hereafter and the first [life].


14. Therefor have I warned you of the blazing Fire


15. Which only the most wretched must endure,


16. He who denies and turns away.


17. Far removed from it will be the righteous


18. Who gives his wealth that he may purify [in goodness],


19. And none has with him any favour for reward,


20. Except as seeking the countenance of his Lord Most High.


21. He verily will be content.


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650


93-THE MORNING


HOURS


93- THE MORNING HOURS [AD-DUHA ]


Revealed at Mecca, [11 verses]


Ad-Duhâ, “The Morning Hours” takes its name from the


first verse. There was an interval during which the Prophet


received no revelation and the idolaters mocked him, saying:


“Allah, of whom we used to hear so much, has forsaken poor


Muhammad and now hates him.” Then came this revelation.


The Prophet had been a leading citizen of Mecca until he


received his call. Now he was regarded as a madman. He was


a man near fifty, and the prophecy in this Sûrah that “the latter


portion would be better for him than the former” must have


seemed absurd to those who heard it. Yet the latter portion


of the Prophet’s life, the last ten years, is the most wonderful


record of success in human history. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the morning hours


2. And by the night when it is stillest,


3. Your Lord has not forsaken you nor does He hate you,


4. And verily the Hereafter will be better for you than the


first [life],


5. And verily your Lord will give to you so that you will be


content.


6. Did He not find you an orphan and gave you a refuge?


7. Did He not find you lost and guided [you]?


8. Did He not find you poor and enrich [you]?


9. Therefor the orphan oppress not,


10. Therefor the petitioner do not repel [him],


11. Therefor of the bounty of your Lord be your discourse.


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651


94-SOLACE


94- SOLACE [AL-SHARH]


Revealed at Mecca, [8 verses]


Al-Inshirah, “Solace” takes its name from a word in verse


1, and also from its subject, which is relief from anxiety. It


was probably revealed upon the same occasion as Sûrah 93;


and, at a time when the Prophet was derided and shunned


after having been respected and courted, must have struck


the disbelievers as ridiculous. It refers to the inward assurance


which the Prophet had received by revelation, and speaks of


future events as accomplished, as is usual in the Qur’ân, the


revelation coming from a plane where time is not. Verse 4,


speaking of his fame as exalted, must have seemed particularly


absurd at that time of humiliation and persecution. But today,


from every mosque in the world, the Prophet’s name is


cried, as that of the messenger of God, five times a day, and


every Muslim prays for blessings on him when his name is


mentioned. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Have We not caused your breast to expand,


2. And eased you of your burden


3. Which weighed down your back;


4. And exalted your fame?


5. But lo! with hardship goes ease,


6. Lo! with hardship goes ease;


7. So when you are finished, then stand up for Allah’s worship


8. And strive to please your Lord.


PART 30


652


95-THE FIG


96-THE CLOT


95- THE FIG [AT-TIN]


Revealed at Mecca, [8 verses]


At-Tin, “The Fig,” takes its name from a word in verse 1.


The sense is mystical, referring to man in relation to the revealed


Law of God and His judgment. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the fig and the olive,


2. By Mount Sinai,


3. And by this land [Mecca] made safe;


4. Surely We created man of the best stature


5. Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low,


6. Save those who believe and do good deeds, and theirs is a


reward unfailing.


7. So what henceforth causes you to deny the Recompense?


8. Is not Allah the most conclusive of all judges?


96- THE CLOT [AL-ALAQ]


Revealed at Mecca, [19 verses]


Al-’Alaq takes its name from a word in verse 2. Verses 1-5


are the words which the Prophet received at Hirâ”, therefore the


first of the Qur’ân to be revealed. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Read: In the name of your Lord who creates,


2. Creates man from a clinging clot.


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653


97-POWER


3. Read: And your Lord is the Most Bounteous,


4. Who teaches by the pen,


5. Teaches man that which he knew not.


6. Nay, but verily man transgresses


7. Because he sees himself self-sufficient!


8. Lo! to your Lord is the return.


9. Have you seen him who dissuades


10. A slave when he prays?


11. Have you seen if he [relies] on the guidance [of Allah]


12. Or enjoins piety?


13. Have you seen if he denies [Allah’s guidance] and is


froward?


14. Is he then unaware that Allah sees?


15. Nay, but if he ceases not We will seize him by the forelock–


16. The lying, sinful forelock–


17. Then let him call upon his helpers!


18. We will call the guards of Hell.


19. Nay! Do not obey him. But prostrate yourself, and draw


near [to Allah].


97- POWER [AL-QADR]


Revealed at Mecca, [5 verses]


Al-Qadr takes its name from a word in verse 1. It refers to


the night (one of the last nights of Ramadan) on which the


Prophet received his Call and the first verses of the Qur’ân


were revealed at Mt. Hirâ. It is said to be the night on which


God’s decrees for the year are brought down to the earthly


plane. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


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654


98-THE CLEAR PROOF


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Lo! We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadar [Decree].


2. Ah, what will convey to you what the Night of Al-Qadar is!


3. The Night of Al-Qadar is better than a thousand months.


4. The angels and the Spirit [Gabriel] descend therein, by the


permission of their Lord for every matter.


5. [That night is] Peace until the rising of the dawn.


98- THE CLEAR PROOF [AL-BAIYINA]


Revealed at Al-Madînah, [8 verses]


Al-Beyyinah takes its name from a word in the first verse.


There is no certainty as to the period of revelation. Many


regard it as a late Meccan Sûrah. I follow the attribution in the


Mushaf which I have followed throughout. The probable date


of revelation is the year 1 A.H.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Those who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture


and the polytheists could not have left off [erring] till the


clear proof came to them,


2. A messenger from Allah, reciting [the Qur’ân] purified


Scriptures


3. Containing correct and straight laws.


4. Nor were the People of the Scripture divided until after the


clear proof came to them.


5. And they are ordered nothing else than to worship Allah,


keeping religion pure for Him, as men by nature upright,


PART 30


655


99-THE EARTHQUAKE


and to establish prayer and to pay the poor-due. That is


true religion.


6. Lo! those who disbelieve, among the People of the Scripture


and the polytheists, will abide in fire of Hell eternally.


Those are the worst of created beings.


7. [And] lo! those who believe and do good deeds are the best


of created beings.


8. Their reward is with their Lord: Paradise of Eden


underneath which rivers flow, wherein they dwell forever.


Allah has pleasure in them and they have pleasure in Him.


This is [in store] for him who fears his Lord.


99- THE EARTHQUAKE [AL-ZALZALAH]


Revealed at Mecca, [8 verses]


Al-Zalzalâh takes its name from a word in verse 1. A very


early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. When Earth is shaken with her [final] earthquake


2. And Earth yields up her burdens,


3. And man says: What ails her?


4. That day she will relate her chronicles,


5. Because your Lord inspires her.


6. That day mankind will issue forth in scattered groups to be


shown their deeds.


7. And whoso does good an atom’s weight will see it then,


8. And whoso does evil an atom’s weight will see it then.


PART 30


656


100- THE COURSERS


101- THE CALAMITY


100- THE COURSERS [AL-A’ADIYAT]


Revealed at Mecca, [11 verses]


Al-A’âdiyât takes its name from a word in the first verse. A


very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the snorting coursers,


2. Striking sparks of fire


3. And scouring to the raid at dawn,


4. Then, therewith, with their trail of dust,


5. Cleaving, as one, the centre [of the foe],


6. Lo! man is an ingrate to his Lord


7. And lo! he is a witness to that;


8. And lo! in the love of wealth he is violent.


9. Knows he not that, when the contents of the graves are


scattered


10. And the secrets of the breasts are made known.


11. On that day will their Lord be perfectly informed


concerning them.


101- THE CALAMITY [AL-QARI’AH]


Revealed at Mecca, [11 verses]


Al-Qâri’ah takes its name from a word in verse I recurring


in the next two verses. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


PART 30


657


102- RIVALRY IN WORLDLY


INCREASE


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. The Calamity!


2. What is the Calamity?


3. Ah, what will convey to you what the calamity is!


4. A day wherein mankind will be as thickly-scattered


moths


5. And the mountains will become as carded wool.


6. Then, as for him whose scales are heavy [with good


deeds],


7. He will live a pleasant life.


8. But as for him whose scales are light,


9. His refuge will be an abyss.


10. Ah, what will convey to you what she is!–


11. Raging Fire.


102- RIVALRY IN WORLDLY


INCREASE [AT-TAKATHUR]


Revealed at Mecca, [8 verses]


At-Takâthur takes its name from a word in the first verse.


A very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Rivalry in worldly increase distracts you


2. Until you come to the graves.


3. Nay, but you will come to know!


4. Nay, but you will come to know!


5. Nay, would that you knew [now] with a sure knowledge!


6. For you will behold Hell-fire


PART 30


658


103- THE DECLINING DAY


104- THE TRADUCER


7. Aye, you will behold it with sure vision.


8. Then, on that day, you will be asked concerning pleasure.


103- THE DECLINING DAY [AL-ASR]


Revealed at Mecca, [3 verses]


Al-’Asr takes its name from a word in verse 1. A very early


Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. By the time,


2. Lo! man is in a state of loss,


3. Save those who believe and do good deeds, and exhort one


another to truth and exhort one another to patience.


104- THE TRADUCER [AL-HUMAZAH]


Revealed at Mecca, [9 verses]


Al-Humazah takes its name from a word in verse 1. The


idolaters waylaid all newcomers to Mecca and warned them


against the Prophet, in order to prevent their listening to


his preaching. An early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Woe to every slandering traducer,


2. Who collects wealth [of this world] and [continuously]


counts it.


3. He thinks that his wealth will render him immortal.


4. Nay, but verily he will be thrown into the Crusher.


5. Ah, what will convey to you what the Crusher is!


6. [It is] the fire of Allah, kindled,


PART 30


659


105- THE ELEPHANT


7. Which leaps up over the hearts [of men].


8. Lo! it is closed in on them


9. In outstretched columns.


105- THE ELEPHANT [AL-FIL]


Revealed at Mecca, [5 verses]


Al-Fîl, “The Elephant” takes its name from a word in


the first verse. The allusion is to the campaign of Abraha,


the Abyssinian ruler of Al-Yemen, against Mecca, with the


purpose of destroying the Ka’bah in the year of the Prophet’s


birth. He had with him an elephant which much impressed the


Arabs. Tradition says that the elephant refused to advance on


the last stage of the march, and that swarms of flying creatures


pelted the Abyssinians with stones. Another tradition says


that they retired in disorder owing to an outbreak of smallpox


in the camp. At the time when this Sûrah was revealed, many


men in Mecca must have known what happened. Dr Krenkow,


a sound Arabic scholar, is of opinion that the flying creatures


may well have been swarms of insects carrying infection.


In any case the Ka’bah was saved from destruction after its


defenders had despaired. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the owners of


the Elephant?


2. Did He not bring their plot to misguidance,[1]


3. And send against them birds, in flocks,


4. Which pelted them with stones of baked clay,


5. And made them like green crops devoured [by cattle]?


[1] Causing them to perish.


PART 30


660


106- QUREYSH


107- SMALL KINDNESS


106- QUREYSH [QURAISH]


Revealed at Mecca, [4 verses]


Quraish is so called from a word occurring in verse 2. It is


also often called Qureysh. A very early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. For the taming of Qureysh


2. For their taming [We cause] the caravans to set forth in


winter and summer.


3. So let them worship the Lord of this House,


4. Who has fed them against hunger and has made them safe


from fear.


107- SMALL KINDNESS [AL-MA’UN]


Revealed at Mecca, [7 verses]


Al Mâ’ûn takes its name from a word in the last verse. An


early Meccan revelation.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Have you seen him who belies the Recompense?


2. That is he who drives away the orphan,


3. And urges not the feeding of the needy.


4. Ah, woe to those performers of prayers


5. Who delay their prayer;


6. Those who make show [of their deeds]


7. Yet withhold small kindnesses!


PART 30


661


108- ABUNDANCE


109- THE DISBELIEVERS


108- ABUNDANCE [AL-KAUTHAR]


Revealed at Mecca, [3 verses]


Al-Kauthar takes its name from a word in the first verse.


The disbelievers used to taunt the Prophet with the fact that


he had no son, and therefore none to uphold his religion


after him.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Lo! We have given you [Muhammad] al-Kauthar [a river in


Paradise];


2. So pray to your Lord, and sacrifice.


3. Lo! It is your insulter [and not you] who is without


posterity.


109- THE DISBELIEVERS [AL-KAFIRUN]


Revealed at Mecca, [6 verses]


Al-Kâfirûn takes its name from a word in verse 1. It was


revealed at a time when the idolaters had asked the Prophet


to compromise in matters of religion.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Say: O disbelievers!


2. I worship not that which you worship;


3. Nor worship you that which I worship.


4. And I shall not worship that which you worship.


5. Nor will you worship that which I worship.


6. To you your religion, and to me my religion.


PART 30


662


110- SUCCOUR


111- PALM FIBRE


110- SUCCOUR [AN-NASR]


Revealed at Al-Madînah, [3 verses]


An-Nasr takes its name from a word in the first verse. It is


one of the very last revelations, having come to the Prophet


only a few weeks before his death. Though ascribed always


to Al-Madînah, tradition says that it was actually revealed


at Mecca during the days the Prophet spent there when he


made his farewell pilgrimage. It is described in Ibn Hishâm


and elsewhere as the first announcement that the Prophet


received of his approaching death. The date of revelation is


the tenth year of the Hijrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. When Allah’s succour and the conquest comes


2. And you see mankind entering the religion of Allah in


multitudes.


3. Then glory the praises of your Lord, and seek forgiveness


of Him. Lo! He is ever Accepting of repentance.


111- PALM FIBRE [AL-MASAD]


Revealed at Mecca, [5 verses]


Al-Masad takes its name from a word (to the Arabs a


very homely word) in the last verse. It is the only passage


in the whole Qur’ân where an opponent of the Prophet is


denounced by name. Abû Lahab (The Father of Flame),


whose real name was Abdul ‘Uzzâ, was a first cousin of


the Prophet’s grandfather and was the only member of his


own clan who bitterly opposed the Prophet. He made it his


business to torment the Prophet, and his wife took a pleasure


in carrying thorn bushes and strewing them in the sand where


PART 30


663


112- THE UNITY


113- THE DAYBREAK


she knew that the Prophet was sure to walk barefooted. An


early Meccan revelation.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. The two hands of Abû Lahab will perish, and he will perish.


2. His wealth and gains will not exempt him.


3. He will be plunged in flaming Fire,


4. And his wife, the wood-carrier,


5. Will have upon her neck a rope of palm-fibre.


112- THE UNITY [AL-IKHLAS]


Revealed at Mecca, [4 verses]


Al-Ikhlas, “The Unity” takes its name from its subject.


It has been called the essence of the Qur’ân, of which it is


really the last Sûrah. Some authorities ascribe this Sûrah to the


Madînah period, and think that it was revealed in answer to a


question of some Jewish scholars concerning the nature of


God. It is generally held to be an early Meccan Sûrah.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Say: He is Allah, the One!


2. Allah, the eternally Besought of all!


3. He begets not nor was begotten.


4. And there is none comparable to Him.


113- THE DAYBREAK [ AL-FALAQ]


Revealed at Mecca, [5 verses]


Al-Falaq, “The Daybreak,” takes its name from a


word in the first verse. This and the following Sûrah are


PART 30


664


114- MANKIND


prayers for protection, this one being for protection from


fears proceeding from the unknown. The two Sûrahs are


known as Al-Mu’awwadhateyn, the two cries for refuge and


protection.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Daybreak


2. From the evil of that which He created;


3. From the evil of the darkness when it is intense,


4. And from the evil of the blowers in knots [malignant


witchcraft],


5. And from the evil of the envier when he envies.


114- MANKIND [AL-NAS]


Revealed at Mecca [6 verses]


An-Nas, the second of the two cries for refuge and


protection, takes its name from a recurring word which marks


the rhythm in the Arabic. In this case protection is sought


especially from the evil in a man’s own heart and in the hearts


of other men. An early Meccan revelation.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


1. Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind,


2. The Sovereign of mankind,


3. The God of mankind,


4. From the evil of the sneaking whisperer,


5. Who whispers in the hearts of mankind,


6. Of the jinn and of mankind



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